Vertigo often presents as dizziness, which can have many causes. In this discussion, we will examine causes and their related anatomy and physiology. Within the article, The Treatment and Natural Course of Peripheral and Central Vertigo, select one type of vertigo to read about. Focus on the anatomy and physiology, as opposed to the treatments.
Initial post: In your initial post, describe the type of vertigo you chose to read about and explain the related anatomy and physiology. Be sure to cite the required resource to support your descriptions.
Week 5 DiscussionDiscussion Topic Due November 24 at 11:59 PM
Review the following lecture:
The discussion assignment provides a forum for discussing relevant topics for this week on the basis of the course competencies covered. For this assignment, make sure you post your initial response to the Discussion Area by the due date assigned.
To support your work, use your course and text readings and also use outside sources. As in all assignments, cite your sources in your work and provide references for the citations in APA format.
Start reviewing and responding to the postings of your classmates as early in the week as possible. Respond to at least two of your classmates. Participate in the discussion by asking a question, providing a statement of clarification, providing a point of view with a rationale, challenging an aspect of the discussion, or indicating a relationship between two or more lines of reasoning in the discussion. Complete your participation for this assignment by the end of the week.
Using your text and South University library resources, address the following questions:
Reflect on one of the professional interviews you have completed.
Attach an e-mail from the person you completed the interview with, showing completion of the interview.
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In a short word,Choose a disease that affect or impact the peripheral nervous system and its potential treatment for that disease.
Instructions For Anatomy Paper
Movement in the human body is possible due to specific interactions between the nervous, muscular and skeletal systems. For this paper, you will describe these interactions as your body goes through specific actions. Scenario You see a delicious cookie on the table in front of you. You decide you will try one. To do this you must: 1) Lift your arm directly in front of you to reach for the cookie – you produce movement at the shoulder 2) Grasp the cookie with your fingers and your thumb – you produce movements at the MP joints 3) Bring the cookie to your mouth – you produce movement at your elbow Required Elements The paper must have the following elements as you describe how getting this cookie to your mouth is possible: 1) APA Style: The paper should written in APA style, have an abstract, separate sections with headings, a bibliography page & be properly sited. See link in blackboard for specifics 2) An Introduction: Introduce the topic by explaining the role each system plays in movement and how these systems interact to produce movement in general (no specific movements here). The introduction should be a thorough discussion of the topic before you get specific. 3) Motor Pathway: The specific path the nerve signal travels through the brain, spinal cord and spinal nerves so that the conscious thought that starts in the brain “I will pick up the cookie” reaches the muscles and causes movement at the joint. (The motor pathway as discussed in class) – This is described only once in general, NOT for each specific movement! 4) Nerve Physiology: The mechanism by which the nerve signal is initiated in the neuron, propagated down the axon and passed to the muscles (Nerve physiology as discussed in class) 5) Muscle Physiology: The mechanism by which the muscles are stimulated by the nerve and then contract, including sliding filament theory (Muscle Physiology as discussed in class). 6) Descriptions of the interaction between the nerves, muscles and bones for each movement: you should describe specifically what happens when going through movements 1-3 above. Be sure to: a. Name the movements that occur at the joints (flexion, elevation, extension abduction etc.). b. Name the specific nerves that stimulate the specific muscles to pull the specific bones to produce movements you identified at the joint.
c. DO NOT LIST the bones, joints, muscles, and nerves! Name them as you describe what is happening – how they are interacting with each other to produce movement. See example below
Example: “ There are many motor and sensory neurological pathways that combine the CNS and PNS. In this example, in order to move any muscle or coordinate any muscle group the following neuropathway is utilized by the nervous system……”.
“Each nerve cell conducts impulses through the following physiological processes…(elaborate in detail)” “At each neuromuscular junction the following occurs……(elaborate in detail)” “each muscle contraction involves individual muscle fibers and their sarcomeres undergoing the contraction cycle…which in includes…(elaborate in detail)”
“ To kick a ball requires flexion, followed by rapid extension at the knee. The knee is a hinge joint formed by articulation between the medial and lateral condyles of both the femur and tibia. To flex the knee, nerve impulses exit the spinal cord via the sacral plexus (L1 to S3) and travel down the tibial part of the sciatic nerve. The sciatic nerve synapses with the three muscles of the hamstrings, stimulating contraction in these muscles. The semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris make up the hamstrings on the posterior side of the thigh. When these three muscles contract, they work together to pull the tibia and fibula back and up toward the posterior side of the femur. This action flexes the knee, causing the condyles’ of the tibia to glide back and upward along the condyles’ of the femur, decreasing the angle of the knee joint, and bringing the tibia and fibula closer to the femur at the back of the thigh. Then, to kick the ball requires you to swing the lower leg forward by extending the knee. To extend the knee… This is the rubric that will be used to score your paper. Examine it closely to make sure you are including all required aspects of the paper.
Rubric – Final Anatomy Paper ____ Thorough introduction pertaining to how movement is produced in the body in general, College level writing in paper (5pts) ____ Description of a general motor pathway through brain and spinal cord – thorough and correct (10 pts) ____ Nerve Physiology: (20 pts) 1. How Impulse is initiated – thorough & correct
2. How Impulse is propagated – thorough & correct
3. How impulse is transmitted – thorough & correct ____ Muscle Physiology: (20 pts) 1. How muscle is stimulated – thorough & correct
2. How stimulus causes contraction – thorough & correct
3. Contraction – Sliding filament theory – thorough & correct ____ Reach for cookie: (15 pts)
1. Movement at shoulder joint identified correctly 2. Nerves, muscles, and bones needed for the movement identified correctly 3. Description of the interaction needed for the movement thorough and correct ____ Grasp cookie: (15 pts) 1. Movement at the metacarpophalangeal joints of fingers & carpometacarpal joint of thumb identified correctly 2. Nerves, muscles, and bones needed for the movement identified correctly 3. Description of the interaction needed for the movement thorough and correct ____ Bring Cookie to mouth: (15pts) 1. Movement at elbow joint identified correctly 2. Nerves, muscles, and bones needed for the movement identified correctly 3. Description of the interaction needed for the movement thorough and correct
List of Do’s and Don’ts for the Paper
• Do use the rubric to verify that you have included
all required components of the paper
• Don’t lose points by leaving something out! If it
is not there, I can’t give you points.
• Do look up and verify that you are identifying the
motion at the joint correctly for the action you are
trying to complete.
• Example: What does flexion of the knee look
like? Is that the motion you make to sit down on a
• Don’t get the motions at the joint wrong. If the
motion is wrong than all the muscles and nerves
will be wrong too
• Do look up which muscles produce the movement
you have identified at the joint
• Do look up the which nerves stimulate the
muscles you have identified for that movement
• Don’t guess at the nerves and muscles needed to
produce the specific movements you have
identified – use your resources! You may need to
name some structures that were not studied in
• Do write a specific description of interactions that
occur between the specific nerves, muscle and
bones when describing the motion at a joint!
How do nerves and muscles interact?
How do muscles and bones interact?
What is the role of each in movement?
Example of what to DO:
“To flex the knee, a nerve impulse passes from the
sciatic nerve to stimulate the three muscles of the
hamstrings, the semimembranosus,
semitendinosus and the biceps femoris, causing
them to contract. When these muscles contract,
they pull the tibia and fibula back and up toward
the posterior side of the femur, causing flexion at
See full example of kicking a ball on instructions!
• Don’t create a list the muscles, bones and nerves
involved in a motion and think that you are done!
That is only a rough organization of the facts you
need to write a description of the interaction
between these structures. Example of what NOT
“To flex the knee involves the 3 hamstrings – the semitendinosus, semimembranosus and biceps femoris, the tibia, fibula and femur, and the sciatic nerve.”
• Don’t describe the anatomy in place of how these
structures interact…. If you describe how the
knee is put together and how the muscles
attach… great… then describe how they interact.
• Do be descriptive and specific in how the bones
move at the joint – use directional terms to
distinguish between flexion, extension adduction.
Example: …the hamstrings pull the tibia and
fibula back and up toward the posterior side of
the femur, causing the medial and lateral
condyles of the tibia to glide back and up on the
condyles of the femur, flexing the knee joint….”
• Don’t just list the bones that are pulled to
describe how to “flex the knee” – explain how
they are pulled
• Don’t say the bones “flex” or “extend” the
movement occurs at the joint. A bone that flexes
or extends might snap.
• Don’t restate the movement at the joint to
describe how the bones are moved by the muscles
• Do verify that the motor pathway is complete and
• Do verify that the mechanisms for nerve and
muscle physiology is complete and correct
• Don’t leave sections out – verify accuracy
• Do follow APA style – look it up and ask
• Don’t omit citations
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Choose a disease or condition which affects one of the systems we are covering this semester. It can be viral, bacterial, fungal, protozoan, congenital/genetic, biochemical , drug induced, or the result of trauma, overuse, etc.
Investigate the history of the problem, the Disease process and treatments. Written in scientific style, describing the disease and its effect on the body
Paper Format – a. Title, course name, your name and date on first page b. Body of paper begins on the first page. Two or three pages maximum. c. Minimum of two references on last page. Single Spaced, 12 point font.
Based on your review of the data, you have identified 3 key areas of concern that you would like to address as part of the quality improvement initiative. If not addressed, these areas of concern may affect the organizations accreditation and/or profitability:
Patients are having to wait for extended periods of time in the emergency room (ER).
AKT is not implementing effective capacity management strategies for the resources that are currently available.
There are a high number of readmissions due to patients being discharged too early.
You decide to work with staff and management to develop and implement new policies that are grounded in evidence-based practice (EBP). To communicate the new policies with the staff, you will write a 2-page memo addressing the areas of concern and the new EBP policies that now be in place. In the memo, address the following:
Discuss the 3 areas of concern and how these can affect accreditation and/or financial status of the organization.
What is evidence-based practice?
How can evidence-based practice approaches be used to improve health care outcomes?
A set of new policies and procedures that includes 2-3 strategies based on EBP approaches for each area of concern that will be effective immediately
The memo should cite specific examples from the research reviewed regarding EBP approaches to resolving the issues.
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You are a medical student working your way through
college and are assigned to a hospital given background information on a patient.
You were provided the chief complaint and long-term history of the patient
outlined below. You are asked by the nurse in charge to read the following case,
investigate the topic (Diabetes mellitus and chronic renal failure) and complete a
written report in MLA format including references addressing each of the
questions identified below.